History the Department
After independence, the Government of India under the Prime Minister ship of Shri.Jawaharlal Nehru was anxious to integrate the French Indian territories with the country. India signed an agreement with France in June 1948 which gave power to the people to determine the political status of their land.
India and France, following talks, issued a joint statement on 13th October 1954, announcing a procedure for deciding the status of the French settlements. Five days later, on 18th October 1954, the elected members of the Representative Assembly and the municipal councillors of Pondicherry and Karaikal took part in a referendum at Kizhur, a village, near Pondicherry. Of the 178 members present for voting, an overwhelming majority of 170 members favoured the merger of French Indian territories with the motherland. Three days later, an agreement on the de facto transfer of the French territories to India was signed in New Delhi between the two countries.
A treaty of cession was signed by the two countries in May 1956. It was ratified by the French parliament in May 1962. On August 16, 1962 India and France exchanged the instruments of ratification under which France ceded to India full sovereignty over the territories it held. Pondicherry and the other enclaves of Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam came to be administered as the Union Territory of Pondicherry from July 1, 1963.
The development process in the rest of India began immediately after India became a Republic on 26th January 1950 with the introduction of the 1st Five Year Plan in 1951. Even though a late entrant to the Indian Union, planned development in Puducherry started right earnest from the last year of the First Five Year Plan viz. 1955-56 itself. However it was in a transitional stage during the 1st and 2nd Five Year Plan periods.
The profile of Puducherry has undergone many changes during the nearly half-a-century of the planned development. The population of the Union Territory, which was 3,69,083 in 1960-61, rose to 9,74,345 by 2001 and projected to go up to 11,74,004 by 2011. At 766 persons/sq. km., Puducherry was the third most thickly populated State in the country in 1961 and with the present density of 2,034 persons/sq. km, it still retains that distinction. The rural population, which was 76 % of the total population, has declined to 33.43 %, but the literacy level has risen from 35 % to 81.24 %.
The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) has increased from ₹ 850.02 crores in 1993-94 to about ₹ 9,058.95 crores in 2009-10, but the contribution of the primary sector to the GSDP has came down to 2.59 % from 15.95 %.